A precision machining process for generating internal cylindrical forms by removing metal with single-point or multiple-edge tools.


In the lathe, one of the parts upon which the work to be turned is placed. The center in the headstock is referred to as the live center and the one mounted in the tailstock as the dead center.

Center, dead

A center that does not rotate; commonly found on the tailstock of a lathe. Also, an expression for the exact center of an object.

Center, live

A center that revolves with the work. Generally this is the headstock center; however, the ball bearing type tailstock center is also called a live center.


Conical pins of a machine upon which the work is centered, supported, and rotated during cutting or grinding.


A device attached to the work spindle that holds the workpiece, usually gripping it with jaws or fingers.

Chuck Jaws

Chuck jaws are inserts that fit into a chuck and grip the workpiece. There are three types of chuck jaws: base jaws, hard jaws, and soft jaws. Base, or master, jaws are attached to the body of the chuck jaw and are the component that the top jaw is mounted to. Base chuck jaws move radially, toward, and away from the work being chucked. These types of chuck jaws carry the top jaws with them.


A precision work holding chuck which centers finished round stock automatically when tightened. Specialized collets are also available in shapes for other than round stock.

Core Bits

Core bits are cutting tools used to remove a cylindrically shaped piece of material, called a core. Core bits have a hollow center, similar to hole saws, but differ in application. A hole saw is meant to create a large hole in a workpiece, while a core drill is designed to cut a hole and remove a core sample or to drill a hole without leaving material behind.


Countersinks are tools used for cutting angled holes or countersinks in a workpiece. They have fluted designs and are used to make clean cuts in hardwood, metal, plywood, and plastic. Countersinks are available in a wide range of materials, from general application uses to products used to cut into very hard surfaces. The most commonly used materials are high speed steel, cobalt steel, carbide and carbide tips, and diamond tips.

Cutting Tool Inserts

Cutting tool inserts are replaceable attachments for cutting tools that typically contain the actual cutting edge. Cutting tool inserts applications include boring, construction, cutoff and parting, drilling, grooving, hobbing, milling, mining, sawing, shearing and cutting, tapping, threading, turning, and brake rotor turning.

Deburring and Chamfering Tools

Deburring and chamfering tools remove flashing and other unwanted edge properties caused by cutting or machining. Deburring tools remove burrs and smooth parting lines, jagged edges, or protuberances on the surface of an object created during machining or casting operations. A deburring tool greatly improves the quality and functionality of metal and wood pieces, making it a necessary use of time and a cost effective process. Chamfering tools are used to create a beveled edge at the intersection of two surfaces, typically at 45 degrees.

Edge Finders

Edge finders are tools used to locate the edge of a workpiece during machine setup operations by using an X and Y axis. They are also referred to as center finders or wigglers. Edge finders are used in milling applications to find the edge of a part within a few thousands of an inch and can be placed inside the spindle head of a milling machine.

End Mills

End mills are widely used, multiple-flute cutters typically used for machining metals or plastics. They are typically mounted vertically and have two or more helical flutes. End mills are usually configured to cut with their ends and on their sides. End mills may be of solid construction, or with holders and inserts. They can be used with a number of end or tip geometry options, including: square end, ball nose, radius tip, chamfer tip.

Grinding Wheels

Grinding wheels are used for metal removal, dimensioning, and finishing. They consist of an integral shank, pin, shaft, or mandrel that drives a mounted wheel or blades. There are many types of grinding wheels: straight, blank, cone, plug, cylindrical, depressed center, recessed, flaring-cup, straight-cup, tapered, dish.


The fixed or stationary end of a lathe or similar machine tool.


Punches are fabricating tools used to perforate material and create cuts or holes in the shape of the punch edge. They include a variety of tools, dies and machine stamping devices that are used to produce components with specific shapes. Hand-held punches come in sets of different-sized dies with handles.


Reamers are rotary cutting tools used in metalworking. Reaming is the process of enlarging and sizing a hole by means of a multifluted cutting tool. Precision reamers are designed to enlarge the size of a previously formed hole by a small amount but with a high degree of accuracy to leave smooth sides. Non-precision reamers are used for more basic enlargement of holes and light material removal to deburr.

Rotary Burs

Rotary burs are cutting tools with many closely-spaced cutting edges, often with negative rake angle, for finishing or deburring edges. A rotary cutting tool is a handheld power tool with a variety of rotating accessory bits and attachments that can be used for cutting, carving, sanding, polishing, and many other applications.

Rotary Tables

Rotary tables are used for precision metalworking. They are made typically with a solid base which can be clamped on to another fixture. The table is a disc which rotates freely or by use of a worm (hand crank). Rotary tables are utilized in machining, automation and assembly applications. Rotary tables are also used in equipment positioning and assembly positioning.

Router Bits

Router bits are rotating tools that are available in a variety of profiles and shapes. Router bits are used with routers for edge shaping. Router bits are also used for joining jobs.There are several types of router bits. Examples include a carbide router bit, dovetail router bit, diamond router bit and an industrial router bit.


A rotating device widely used in machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill presses, and so forth, to hold the cutting tools or the work, and to give them their rotation.


That part of a machine tool, such as a lathe or cylindrical grinder, which supports the end of a workpiece with a center. It may be positioned at any point along the way of the bed, and may be offset from center to machine tapers.


A uniform increase or decrease in the size or diameter of a workpiece.


Taps are used to cut female threads on the inside of holes, a process called tapping. Similar in appearance to a screw, taps have threads that are used to cut into the material being tapped as the tap is turned. After a hole has been drilled with a tap drill, it is ready for tapping.

Threading Dies

Threading dies are used to form or cut a male thread on the outside of rod or bars. Threading dies provide precision in cutting and extend the life of a die by reducing wear.

Tool holders

Tool holders (toolholders) are the physical interface between tooling and the machine tool. They come in a multiple of different machine mount styles from the older R8 style to newer HSK or VDI mount.

Tool Turret

Tool turrets are indexing tool holders for lathes, transfer machines, and other machine tools. They allow equipment to carry multiple cutting tools at one time and mount individual tools in the correct sequence. Tool turrets can replace a manual tool post or rotary indexer to improve processing efficiency and reduce setup costs.


Vises are used for work holding and during inspection, assembly, forming, welding, and machining operations. They usually consist of a screw, level, or cam-type mechanism that closes and holds two or more jaws around a workpiece. Vises belong to a category of products called work and tool holding devices, implements that are used to hold and position workpieces and tools during setup, manufacturing, and dimensional inspection. Work and tool holders include products such as A clamps, C clamps, magnetic clamps, V blocks, bench vises, swivel vises, angle or tilting vises, parallel clamps, drill press or table vises, and pin vises.

Vise Jaws

Vise jaws are inserts that fit into a vise and grip the workpiece. There are many different types of products. Aluminum vise jaws are used to hold and protect round, hexagonal or serrated parts. Rubber-faced vise jaws are also used to protect fragile parts from damage, and may be suitable for holding irregular shapes. Soft steel vice jaws are commonly available. Hardened step vise jaws have tapped holes in both ends and a low profile for added clamping force. Hydraulic vise jaws equalize pressure on independent pistons and can compensate for variations in workpiece size. Magnetic vise jaws use a strong nitrile magnet to hold jaw inserts in place. Oversize plate jaws are designed to hold fixtures or oversized plates. Toothed vise jaws have sturdy teeth which penetrate the workpiece. They are designed to hold parts in place during aggressive machining operations.